The Philebus is a teleological dialogue, focused on the finality of things. On the surface, the subject matter concerns the question of pleasure. The pursuit of pleasure, as opposed to Jefferson’s “pursuit of happiness”, is a limitless activity. However there is the question of the finality of the philosophic life -what is the end? Where is the horizon?
The Platonic answer is that the philosophic life finds its horizon in a limitless pursuit of eidos (ideas, a la the true, the good, and the beautiful). However, throughout the Platonic dialogues, we encounter Socrates, whom Cicero once called the man who brought philosophy ‘down from the heavens’, as a political man. He clearly, and at times explicitly, states that he is out to subordinate the true and the good to the beautiful. That is the political or ethical to the arts and sciences. Though his quest is situational and the locust depends on who he is speaking with. Sometimes an interlocutor needs to pursue the true, rather than the beautiful or the good.
Returning to the dialogue, we also encounter a series of Socratic jokes about stamina, tiredness, and willingness. It becomes apparent that neither Philebus nor Protarchus have the willingness that other Socratic interlocutors possess, like Theaetetus for example. In addition, unlike other Socratic dialogues, I have very little to say about the Philebus as we encounter no moment of Socratic aporeia and no moment of abrupt ending. It is a dialogue without a beginning and without a conclusion. It occurs entirely en media res. The dialogue simply continues without end or conclusion, alluding to the transcendent nature of philosophy as it sheds this mortal coil, a la Shakespeare, in a uniquely Socratic fashion.